This simulator illustrates the principles of direct competitive ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) techniques using an assay of progesterone in urine as an example. It comprises the main ELISA steps including adsorption of antibodies on a microtiter plate, washing, competitive immunoreaction with target analyte and an enzyme labeled antigen (tracer), second washing, application of a substrate and spectrophotometric detection of colored product. Three experiments are designed to simulate the optimization of antibody and tracer concentrations, evaluation of matrix effect and selection of optimal dilution of the urine sample, and finally, measurements of progesterone content in unknown samples.
Detection of nitrites and nitrates
This virtual lab simulates the environmental monitoring of total and individual nitrate/nitrite concentrations in water samples using flow-injection analysis with colorimetric detection. The experiment includes calibration of the system with standard concentrations of analytes followed by injection of water samples collected at different sites in the rural area. Our simulation is based on real images of an automated flow-injection instrument FIA®lab2500 and can be useful both for students in analytical chemistry and environmental analysis.
Flow Injection Analysis (FIA)
This virtual experiment demonstrates the versatility and the speed of flow analysis techniques with modern and flexible equipment. As a model system, copper is detected spectrophotometrically by a reaction with ammonia, which produces Cu-NH3 complex with a strong blue color. The simulator allows monitoring the emergence of Cu-NH3 absorbance peak in real time, imitating real life FIA the detection.
Ion selective electrode
Goal of the lab is to illustrate one of many calcium concentration detection techniques. Ca-ion selective electrode gives voltage when it is submerged in Ca2+ solution, the voltage is proportional to the ion concentration. The experiment starts with the assembly of the electrode from the components which should be combined in right order. Following acquiring of water sample is based on real data from different areas in Sweden. There is also an illustration of process taking place at the electrode membrane.
Electrochemistry: interactive e-book
New type of computer based educational module primarily focused at electroanalytical chemistry. The main reason for this choice is that this particular part of analytical chemistry is hardest to comprehend for the students. To facilitate understanding of various electrochemical phenomena and techniques a large number of computer animations and hands-on exercises.